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Disease occurs due to alteration of the functions of tissues or cells at the microscopic level. The various causes of cell injury include:

  1. Hypoxia: It is the most common cause of cell injury. It results due to decrease in oxygen supply to the cells. Hypoxia may be caused by
  2. Ischemia: Results due to decrease in blood supply. It is the most common cause of             hypoxiaQ
  3. Anemia: Results due to decrease in oxygen carrying capacity of blood
  4. Cardio-respiratory disease: Results from decreased oxygenation of blood due to cardiac   or respiratory disease.
  5. Physical Agents: Cell injury may occur due to radiation exposure, pressure, burns, frost bite etc.
  6. Chemical Agents: Many drugs, poisons and chemicals can result in cell injury.
  7. Infections: Various infectious agents like bacteria, virus, fungus and parasites etc can cause cell injury.
  8. Immunological reactions: These include hypersensitivity reactions and autoimmune diseases.
  9. Genetic causes: Cell injury can also result due to derangement of the genes.
  10. Nutritional imbalance: Cell injury can result due to deficiency of vitamins, minerals etc.


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